再见了,娘炮,国家正式宣布

2021-01-20 来 源:网络整理 作者:安顺一家亲 移动版

?????????????????????


???????????71????????????????????????????????????


???.?.?.??????????.?.?.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????



??????????????????????????? ???? ???? ????????????????????????????? ?67P/????-???????? [67] ?? CHAPTER X. TOBACCO OFFERINGS. 1808. It was a beautiful moonlight evening in August. A shadowy haze lingered over the river, which glistened and sparkled in the moonlight. The Chief and several members of his family were seated on the beach in front of the Wigwam listening to the Honorable Joseph Papineau, who, with his son, Louis Joseph, had come up in a canoe to see the falls. The former had recently purchased from Bishop Laval the unsettled seigniory of Petit Nation, and had erected an unpretentious cottage, which he occupied during the summer months. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan\'s "Types of Canadian Women" (copyright, 1903), by permission. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan\'s "Types of Canadian Women" (copyright, 1903), by permission. "It was a lovely vision," said Mr. Papineau, who had just performed the feat of canoeing to the foot of the Chaudiere Falls for the first time. "On our return we climbed the rugged cliff on the south side, and never shall I forget the panorama that spread out before us. The sun, sinking slowly behind the Laurentian hills, had clothed himself with a robe of splendor. The long reflections lay soft on the waters of the river below. The clouds of ascending mist from the Chaudiere took a thousand shades of color as the western sky faded slowly from crimson into gold and from gold to green and gray, and finally displayed dark shapes, out of which imagination might well have formed a thousand monsters.* * Louis Joseph, afterwards known as the Demosthenes of Canada, and who almost succ ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????eeded in making Canada a Republic, with himself as President, was evidently much impressed with the scene, which he described as follows: "Le soleil etait pret decendre sous l\'horison, la mureille tout limpide etait d\'une transparence vivre, tout penetree de lumiere vaguement prismatise." "As we watched the gathering shadows my thoughts went back two hundred years, to the time when Champlain went on his first trip up the \'Riviere des Algoumequins,\' as he called it. About two years before he took the trip he sent Nicholas de Vignan, a young Frenchman, up the river with some friendly Indians, and Nicholas had returned with the marvellous story that he had reached the North Sea. He said that the journey could be made in a few days. He also gave an account of having seen the wreck of an English ship. "Champlain was completely taken in, and lost no time in starting off to verify the discovery for which the world had been looking for some time. His fleet consisted of two canoes with two Indians and three Frenchmen, one of whom was De Vignan. It was in May, when the river was at its height. When they reached the Gatineau the Indians told him that their tribe were often compelled to conceal themselves amid the hills of the Upper Gatineau from their dreaded enemies, the Iroquois. When Champlain beheld the twin curtain falls yonder, \'like a slow dropping veil of the thinnest lawn,\' he exclaimed, \'Le Rideau! Le Rideau!\' The Indians told him that the waters formed an arcade under which they delighted to walk, and where they were only wet by the spray. As they rounded t ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????he lofty headland opposite he saw the cloud of mist rising from the falls, which the Indians called the \'Asticou,\' which means \'Chaudiere\' in French, or \'kettle\' in English, for the water has worn out a deep basin into which it rushes with a whirling motion which boils up in the midst like a kettle. "You have probably been close enough to have seen it, Madame?" he said, addressing Mrs. Wright. "No," she replied, "I have always been too timid to venture so near to it in a canoe." "Champlain said," continued Mr. Papineau, "that he paddled as near as possible to the falls, when the Indians took the canoes and the Frenchmen and himself carried their arms and provisions. He described with great feeling the sharp and rugged rocks of the portages to pass the falls and rapids until at last, in the afternoon, they embarked upon the peaceful waters of a lake where, he said, there were very beautiful islands filled with vines and with walnut and other agreeable trees." "There are no walnuts on the islands of Lake Chaudiere," interrupted Bearie, "I am quite sure." "He probably saw a butternut tree," said young Louis Joseph, "and thought it produced walnuts." "Champlain\'s journey came to an abrupt close a few days afterwards," said Mr. Papineau, "when he reached Allumette Island, about seventy miles farther up the river. There was a large settlement of friendly Algonquins, called \'Les Sauvages de l\'Isle,\' and Champlain tried to obtain several canoes and guides to proceed farther. They, however, had their own commercial reasons for keeping the French from the upper country, and they warned him of the danger of meeting the terrible tribe of the Sorcerers. Champlain said that De Vign ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????an had passed through all these dangers. The head Chief then said to the impostor: "\'Is it true that you have said that you have been among the Sorcerers?\' "After a long pause he said: \'Yes, I\'ve been there.\' "The Indians at once threw themselves upon him with fierce cries as if they would have torn him to pieces, and the Chief said: "\'You are a bold liar. You know that every night you slept by my side with my children. How have you the impudence to tell your chief such lies?\' "The upshot was that Champlain returned down the Ottawa, followed by an escort of fifty canoes. "When the party reached the Chaudiere the savages, he said, performed their mystic rites. After having carried their canoes to the foot of the Falls, they gathered in a certain spot where one of them, provided with a wooden dish, passed it round, and each one placed in the dish a piece of tobacco. "The collection finished, the dish was placed in the midst of the band and all danced around it, chanting after their fashion. Then one of the chiefs delivered a harangue, explaining that from olden times they had always made such an offering, and that by this means they are protected from their enemies and saved from misfortune, for so the devil persuades them. Then the same chief took the dish and proceeded to throw the tobacco into the Chaudiere, amid the loud shoutings of the band. \'They are so superstitious,\' said Champlain, \'that they do not believe that they can make a safe journey if they have not performed this ceremony in this particular place.\' "The Chief proceeded to throw the tobacco into the Chaudiere." "The Chief proceeded to throw the tobacco into the Chaudiere." "Ah, Monsieur," Mr. Papineau continued, "it stirred my soul as I stood on that roc ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????ky cliff and thought of how many canoes of heroic missionaries, Indian braves and cheery voyageurs have paddled these waters and torn their feet on the rocky shores, going, some of them to death and some to tortures worse than death. As we drifted down with the current in the moonlight the gentle breeze in the pines along the shore seemed to be whispering sad tales of other days." Mr. Papineau, who had spoken with such animation and fluency, relapsed into silence for several minutes, then, rousing himself, said, with even greater enthusiasm and vigor: "Providence has crowned our lives with great blessing since the heroic Daulac struck the death-blow to the power of the Iroquois in this country, and since the English undertook the responsibility of its government. Though I am proud of the fact that every bone and muscle, nerve and sinew within me is French, though I dearly love my Mother Country and my fellow countrymen, I have no hesitation in making the solemn assertion that our country has enjoyed a greater degree of prosperity under the new regime than it ever did under the old. But it must ever be remembered that much of the foundation of that prosperity was laid in the blood of the early French martyrs and in the heroic achievements of the early French settlers." It seemed incredible to the visitors that in a settlement of so recent date their host should have been able to show them a grist-mill, a saw-mill, a vegetable alkali factory, a tannery, a small foundry, a tailor shop, a bakery, a general store, and a hemp-mill, giving employment to over one hundred men. Fortunately for the pioneers of the Ottawa, they were not dependent upon the small revenue derived from the cultivation of the land, but had other resources which afforded them much greater remuneration. The British Navy, which hitherto had been dependent upon Russia for its cordage and lumber, had to look elsewhere for its supply of hemp and timber, owing to the ports of the Baltic having been closed to British ships. The price of hemp having risen from ?25 to ?118 per ton, they undertook the cultivation of it, and raised over three-fourths of the amount raised in Lower Canada at that time. The exportation of lumber and vegetable alkali, or potash, were also great sources of revenue. In the new clearances were tons of wood ashes from which the lye was extracted and boiled till it looked like molten iron, a barrel of which sold at that time for thirty dollars. Prosperity and success crowned every commercial enterprise upon which they ventured until fire swept every mill, factory and dwelling in the thriving little village out of existence, including thousands of dollars in cash in a small safe in the office, quantities of wheat, hemp, sawn lumber, laths and general merchandise. As there was no compensation in the way of insurance, the loss was much felt. Philemon Wright was not the man to be deterred from climbing the ladder of success, even though he had to mount it by the rungs of adverse circumstances. Though the loss sustained was great, almost overwhelming, he rose above it with a courage which yielded not to disappointment or failure. The cause of the fire long remained a mystery. That it was the work of an incendiary was beyond question. Various theories were advocated by the settlers, but suspicion rested upon Machecawa, who, it was alleged, had been seen by the bookkeeper at a late hour lingering about the mills, a suspicion which gained no credence with the Chief and his family.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? [76] ??????????????????????????900?????????[77] ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????100???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????60%????????[78]

??????????????????????????? ???? ???? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1600??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1543??????????????????????????????????????????????????Eighteen months passed. The Chief was in Quebec with Hannah and Abbie awaiting the arrival of Rug, who had been sent by his father to the Mother Land to dispose of two cargoes of timber. It was an unusually cold evening in June. Snow had been falling all day. The neighboring hills were covered with large feathery crystals, which, however, soon melted as the sun appeared for a moment before sinking behind the gray walls of the Castle St. Louis. Just as the evening gun was fired, news had reached the union Hotel that a vessel had been sighted near the Island of Orleans. It was ascertained that it was the Dorris, in command of Captain French, and that Rug was on board. They were soon speeding down Mountain Street in a caleche to the docks, where they secured passage in a small row-boat which was going out to the vessel. The genial captain invited them to take tea with him, and said that Rug was below supervising and arranging with the Customs Officer about the baggage of his numerous protgs, and would be on deck shortly. Hannah burst into a paroxysm of tears when she caught sight of her long-lost lover, who had been compelled to leave only a few weeks after their marriage. He looked twenty years older, and appeared careworn, haggard and ill. As they were seated round the table he gave an account of his travels. "When I received your letter," he said, addressing his father, "I chartered two vessels and persuaded Archie and Jonathan Campbell to go with me for a pleasure trip. We were nearly three months tossing about at the mercy of wind and wave when a hurricane swept the deck of the vessel, carrying with it the main-mast and sails. Water began to pour in at an alarming rate, and after a desperate struggle at the pumps the captain ordered all hands on deck. We felt that we had to prepare for the worst. The sailors had abandoned the pumps from exhaustion, and Jonathan and I took their places and worked until we, too, were exhausted, and as others took our places we retired to the stern, where we found Archie in a sheltered nook, seated upon a coil of rope, playing his violin, apparently oblivious of our perilous condition. "For two days the work at the pumps was a matter of life and death, and when at last the wind subsided we drifted about helplessly until a passing vessel saw our signals of distress and towed us from the Bay of Biscay to Bristol, where the necessary repairs were made to enable us to proceed to Liverpool. We soon disposed of the timber at good profit, and Jonathan, Archie and I took the stage-coach for London, where we had the honor of being presented at Court to gay Prince Geordie, who is acting as Regent, owing to his father\'s mental derangement. I wish you could have seen the Carleton House," he said, turning to Hannah. "He built it at a cost of ?250,000 sterling, and had to sell his stud of race-horses and discharge most of his servants to meet the demands of the creditors, for he had led such a wild, dissipated life that the King and Parliament refused for a long time to help him out of his difficulties. "We visited many places of interest in London and ????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????300??????????????? ????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?318?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????4??6?? 10?????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ?????12???1953?? ??????????????56??? 4000????????? ???45000????? ?200??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????2018?? ????????? 9.0????????????????????? ???????????????????????? 20????? ???? ?????????????8000??????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?11?????????????????9???? ?????????? ????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???10???????????????? ???40????2?? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??65?????????????????????????????29???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??basket of eggs, which he disposed of at a shilling per dozen, and so we continued on until the domes and towers of Quebec came in sight and I began to realize the inexpressible joy of being at home once more."* * Diary of Rev. Robert Bell and letters of R. Wright. Rug was a young man of great executive ability, a young man whose word could be relied upon with absolute certainty, a young man who proved himself the very soul of honor in all his business transactions.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? CHAPTER IV. AN INDIAN SUITOR. 1803. Machecawa and his friend O\'Jawescawa became frequent visitors at the Wigwam. They would come in the morning, uninvited, and sit silently all day long before the open fire and observe all that was going on. The spinning-wheel and hand-loom were objects of unceasing interest to them, and though it proved a great distraction to the children in their studies, and to the girls in the performance of their domestic duties, to have them there, they were always treated not only with respect but with consideration and kindness. One morning Machecawa stood gazing intently into the fire. His face wore an expression of perplexity. At length he turned to the White Chief, who was explaining a mathematical problem to one of his boys, and said: "Big Injun, he want to speak his thoughts from books. He want to know white man\'s Manitou." "May I teach him, father? Just for an hour every day?" said Chrissy, a tall, fair, thoughtful girl of seventeen, who was known throughout the settlement as the "Saint," for she had been led to take a serious view of life by a Quaker friend in the old school at Woburn. "It would be such a pleasure for me to lead him to a knowledge of the truth." The father readily granted the request, and it was arranged that he should receive instruction from Chrissy every morning while the younger boys were having their lessons. Never had teacher a more apt, humble, or willing pupil. Never had pupil a more considerate, patient, kind-hearted instructor. Over and over again did she repeat words and sentences until at last the Indian found, to his unspeakable joy, that he was beginning to acquire the words pretty freely. The morning hour with Machecawa proved of such interest that it was not an uncommon thing to see the White Chief and all the children listening intently to Chrissy and the Indian as they compared their respective creeds. One morning, after she had been giving an account of the creation and the deluge, she said, "Now, tell me what you think of these things. Do the Indians ever think of how the world was made? Did they ever hear of a flood?" Machecawa replied in broken English, the interpretation of which is as follows: The Indian believes that the great Manabozo is king of all other animal kings. The West Wind is his father, and his mother is grand-daughter of the Moon. Sometimes he is a wolf; sometimes a hare; sometimes he is a wicked spirit. Manabozo was hunting with his brother, a wolf, who fell through the ice in a lake and was eaten by snakes. Manabozo was very cross and changed himself into the stump of a tree and surprised the king of the serpents and killed him. The snakes were all Manitous, and they made the water flood the world. Manabozo climbed a tree which grew and grew as the flood came up and was saved from the wicked spirits. Manabozo looked over the waters and he saw a loon, and he cried to the loon for help to save the world. The loon went under the water to look for mud to build the world again, but he could not find the bottom. Then a muskrat tried, but he came up on his back nearly dead. Manabozo looked in his paws and found a little mud, and he took the mud and the dead body of the loon and with it created the world anew again. "And do you believe that?" said the White Chief. "Our tribe she believe like that," replied the Indian. "What is that thing tied round your neck, Machecawa?" said Bearie, the second son, a short, well knit, sturdy-looking youth of eighteen, whose every expression reflected a bright, happy, generous di ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????sposition. "She am my Manitou," replied the Indian. "What is a Manitou? Every Indian you meet with seems to differ on the subject." "Some tam she am wan ting, some tam she am anodder." "That is evading the question," said Chrissy. "What kind of a Manitou have you got inside of that little bag which is tied round your neck?" persisted Bearie. "Will you let me see it?" "No! No!! No!!!" he said excitedly. "My Manitou she am not be pleese." "Come, now, old man," he said. "Tell us all about it." "What is it?" "How did you get it?" "What is it for?" "Waal," he said, reluctantly, "When I am a boy, me, just become a man, my fadder, he say, \'Machecawa, tam you got a manitou.\' My face he paint black, black. He say, heem, \'you no eat no teeng seex days.\' By em by I am dream some teeng, me, dat some teeng she am my manitou. She help me kill beeg bear; she mak dem Iroquois dogs run like one wild moose. My fadder she am pleese; she make my manitou on my arm?see!" he said, rolling up his sleeve. On his shoulder was the rude outline of a fish, which had been tatooed with sharp bones and with the juice of berries rubbed in. "But what is in the little bag?" asked Bearie. "Will you let me see it?" After a good deal of reluctance he gave in at last, and two curious boys untied the precious parcel, while the others, equally curious, looked over his shoulders at a few old broken fish bones which were all the little bag contained. "Well, old man," said Bearie, slowly replacing the sacred relics, "we put our faith in something better than that. The white man trusts the Great Spirit in heaven to care for him and to take him to heaven when he dies." "Any bear in hebben?" asked the Indian. "No," said Bearie, "only good people." "Dat hebben she am no good for big Injun," said Machecawa, sadly. "De happy hunting ground she am full of moose, buffalo, bear, beaver. She am far, far away at de end of land, where de sun she sleep?two, tree moons away. One beeg dog she am cross, an\' she bark at dead Injun, but he go on, an\' on, an\' on, an\' den he am glad." It began to dawn upon the vigilant mother at length that it was not so much the wonders of civilization nor the desire to "speak his thoughts from books" that led Machecawa day after day to the Wigwam, as an ever-increasing interest in her fun-loving daughter, Abbie, who was a year younger than Chrissy, and who seemed unconscious of the fact that the eyes of the red chief were ever upon her.?????????????????????????????????????????1492???????????????????????????????????????????????????????[4] ?????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1369?1415????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1517???????????1483?1546??????????????????????1521???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

???



???????????????????????????????????


???????????????????????????????????????????

????????????????????????????????



????????????


?????????????????


1

????????


??????????????????????


...........

???????????????


???????????????????????????????


???????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????


??????.?.?.???????????????????????????????????????????????


????????????????????????????????????????????????....


???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


2

??????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


???????????????????????...


1????????????


2017???????????????????????????


????????????????????


?????????????????2.8???


??????????????????????????

........

??????????????????????????????????????


????????????


2?????????????


2003????.?.??.?.?.?.?.?.??????????????????


???????.?.?.?.????1????5000??????????????????????????.?.????????????


?.?.?.?.?.?96%?????????


?????????????????????????????????????3????.??.?.?.?.?.??????2500?????4????????????????


???????????????????????????????????????????????????.?.?.???????????????.?.?.?????


????.?.?.?????????......



3????????????


2003?10?16?????????21??????????????????????????????


???????????????????????????????????????????????


?????????????????????



?????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????...


?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

3

???????????


?????????????????????????????????


????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????



???????????....?????????????????????????


?????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????



???????????????????????????...


????????????????????????


???????????????????????????????????????...?????????


????????????????????????????????????????????...


???????????????????


????? ???????????????????????


???????????????????????????


????????


?????????????????????????? ???????


????????????????????????????????????????????


???????????????????????


4

??????


??????????


1840?????????????14?????????????????????????????


????????

????????????????????????



????????????????????????????????????



??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????


????????

???????????????



???????????????????????


??????????????????56??????????????????????????????72??????



98???????20????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????


?????????????


??????86???????????????????????????????????????????????????????



2017?12?6??89????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????


????????

???????????????????



???????????45???????????


??????????????27????????????????


????????????????????????????????????????????


????????

???????????????



????NASA???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


????????

?????????????????????



???????????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????????????????????????????????????



?????????????????????????????????????????


???????????????


??????????11???????????????????????



???????????????????????



??????????????????????????



??????????????????????????



??????????


???????????????????????????????????????????????????


????????????????????????????????


??????????????


??????????????????????????????????????



????????

?????????????????????????



?????????34????????????????



1962??????19??(?)?127?????????242??????????????????



????????????????55?????????


?????????????????????????????????112?????


???????????? ?????? ???????


???????????????????



??????????????????????2014?????????????????????????47??



??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


???????????????????????????????????????


?????????????????????????????????????????????????????


????????????


?????????????????????????????????????????????


?????????????????

????????3????????????????????


????????????????

????????????????????????????????????


?????????????????????????????????????????????????????


??????90???????????????????????????????????17???????



?????????????????????????????????????????????????


3????6???????????????????????



?????????????????????????????



???????????????????????7??


???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


????????????

??????????


?????????????????20??????????????????????????????????????


?????????????????????????????????????????????????


????13?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????



???????????????????????????????????????????????????????



????????????????????????????????


???????????????????


??18?????????????????????????????684??????????



????????


????????????????????


?????????????????????????


???????????????????????????????????????????????"



??????????????????????????????????


?????????????????????????????????????



?????



??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


???????????????????????????????????



????????????????????


?????????

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

???????????????????


????????????????


????????????????????????????????????????


???????????????


, 转载请注明出处: https://www.anshun114.com/view-71440-1.html